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Glossary of Terms

This glossary of terms defines words commonly used by KOJIN throughout this website and in other printed communications. Please contact us if you have suggestions for future additions to the glossary.

T12, T8 and T5 are a designation representing the size of a fluorescent lamp. The "T" indicates that the shape of the lamp is tubular and the numbers represent the diameter of the tube in eighths of an inch. So a T12 has a 12/8" or 1.5" diameter, T8 has a 8/8" or 1" diameter, and a T5 has 5/8" diameter.

An ampere is a unit measure of electric charge passing a point in an electric circuit per unit time, with 6.241 x 1018 one coulomb per second constituing one ampere.

A ballast is a device that is used to provide the necessary starting voltage and current for lighting a fluorescent or mercury lamp. It also maintains the current at the desired constant value by varying its resistance in order to counteract changes in voltage. If a fluorescent light were directly connected to a high-voltage power source bypassing the ballast, the light would rapidly draw more current and would overheat and burn out within seconds.

There are two general types of ballasts - electro-magnetic and electronic. Electro-magnetic ballasts are gradually being removed from the marketplace by energy regulations and are being replaced by more energy efficient electronic ballasts.

Ballast Factor
The ballast factor is a ratio of the lamp's light output using a commercial ballast compared to a reference ballast. The closer the ballast factor is to 1, the more closely the lamps will generate their rated lumen output. The ballast factor demonstrates the relationship of the ballast and the lamp.

Fluorescent Lamp
A fluorescent lamp is a low-pressure mercury electric discharge lamp. It consists of a glass tube filled with a mixture of mercury and argon gas at low pressure and emits ultra-violet (UV) radiation when an electric current is passed through it. This UV radiation is converted into the visible light we see by the fluorescent coating on the inside of the tube.

Input Watt
In a lighting system such as florescent lamps, input watts refers to the power required to operate a lamp/ballast combination measured in watts.

A lumen is a measure of the total amount of visible light emitted by a luminous source such as a lamp or bulb. A lux is equal to one lumen per square meter.

Nanotechnology involves the manufacture of materials within the size range of 1 to 100 nanometers (nm). A nanometer is one-billionth of a meter, only a fraction of the width of a human hair.

Nano Reflector
KOJIN T5 Nano Reflectors go through a process of nanotechnology which involves the fine grinding of minerals. The metallic surface layer of the reflector captures previously lost light, and the curvature of the reflector was engineered to increase light intensity up to 50-60%. The finished reflective surface has a reflectance of 0.89 is then able to refract light and redirect it downwards to the usable light surface area.

Power Factor
Power factor is the ratio between Apparent Power and the Actual Power that an electrical device draws from the power source. In practical terms, it is a measure of how effective an electrical device is at converting voltage from the power source. pf is denoted by decimal numbers less than 1. A low power factor will increase the demand component of your electricity bill for a given lighting load. High power factor ballasts (power factor above 0.9) draw less current, and indication that they are more efficient at using power.

Underwriters Laboratories is an independent global organization that establishes, publishes, tests, validates, inspects and certifies products for safety standards. When a product passes the standard test, the applicant company and products are designated as “Product Safety-listed”, or “Product Safety-Classified”. Products that have been certified by UL are recognized with UL labels as well as a listing on the UL web site.

UL plays an important role in ensuring product safety to protect the interest of consumers. In fact, the U.S. Department of Labor’s Occupational Safety and Health Administration requires all electrical equipment to be approved to UL or ANSI testing standards.

Voltage is a measure of electrical potential expressed in volts (V). It is the total energy required to move a small electric charge along that path, divided by the magnitude of the charge. In other words, it is a measurement of the energy contained within an electric field, or an electric circuit, at a given point. The greater the voltage, the greater the flow of electrical current through a conducting or semiconducting medium for a given resistance to the flow.

A watt is a standard unit measuring electrical power and is equal to 1 joule per second. The watt is used to specify the rate at which electrical energy is dissipated. A watt-hour is equivalent to a power consumption of one watt for one hour. Power consumption ratings on consumer devices are typically expressed in watt-hours - for example, a 60W incandescent bulb consumes 60 watts of energy every hour.